This is an excerpt from Philosophy of Religion by C. Stephen Evans in the chapter for classical arguments for God's Existence. In this excerpt, Evans describes Norman Malcolm's formulation of Anselm's second ontological argument, which deals with the concept of necessary existence.
The gist of the second argument, as Malcolm formulates it, is as follows: God is by definition a being who does not merely happen to exist. God can neither come into existence nor pass out of existence, since a being who could do either simply would not be God. It follows from this that if God exists at all, then his existence is necessary. If he does not exist, then his existence is impossible. But either God exists or he does not exist, so God's existence is either necessary or impossible. Since it does not seem plausible to say that God's existence is impossible, then it follows that his existence is necessary. So if God's existence is possible, then it is necessary. More formally the argument can be put like this:
1. If God exists, his existence is necessary.
2. If God does not exist, his existence is impossible.
3. Either God exists or he does not exist.
4. God's existence is either necessary or impossible.
5. God's existence is possible (it is not impossible).
6. Therefore God's existence is necessary.1
1 C. Stephen Evans, Philosophy of Religion: Thinking About Faith (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press., 1982), p. 48.
Friday, March 15, 2013
- ► 2014 (134)
- Francis Schaeffer on Apologetics
- Book Review: The Only Wise God by William Lane Cra...
- Weekly Apologetics Bonus Links (03/22 - 03/29)
- Evidence Jesus is Alive by Timothy McGrew
- Casey Luskin Interview Transcript on Intelligent D...
- Apologetics Audiobook Directory
- Terminology Tuesday: Cumulative Case Arguments
- Top Ten Myths About the Resurrection
- C.S. Lewis on Daily Devotion
- Book Review: Science and Human Origins
- Weekly Apologetics Bonus Links (03/15 - 03/22)
- Jeff Zweerink Interview Transcript
- Eight Issues That Do NOT Make or Break Christianit...
- Featured Resource: Answers for Atheists
- Terminology Tuesday: Principle of Sufficient Reaso...
- Peter S. Williams on C.S. Lewis vs the New Atheist...
- Paul L. Maier on the Empty Tomb
- Review: What is Marriage? Man and Woman: A Defense...
- Weekly Apologetics Bonus Links (03/08 - 03/15)
- The Ontological Argument: Malcolm's Formulation
- David Robertson Interview Transcript
- Sean McDowell vs. James Corbett Debate MP3 Audio
- Terminology Tuesday: God-of-the-Gaps Argument
- Apologist Interview: Ron Rhodes
- John MacArthur on the Resurrection of Jesus
- Book Review: The Christian God by Richard Swinburn...
- Weekly Apologetics Bonus Links (03/01 - 03/08)
- Follow Apologetics 315 on Facebook and Twitter
- Frank Turek Interview Transcript
- Reasonable Faith UK Tour 2011 Videos
- Terminology Tuesday: Free Will Defense
- Interview: J. Steve Miller on Near-Death Experienc...
- Charles Spurgeon on Christian Persuasion
- Book Review: The Intolerance of Tolerance by D.A. ...
- Weekly Apologetics Bonus Links (02/22 - 03/01)
- Advanced Pro-Life Apologetics Course
- ▼ March (36)
- ► 2012 (413)
- ► 2011 (392)
- ► 2010 (394)
- ► 2009 (337)
- ► 2008 (219)